Clean Water – A Matter of Life and Death

by Optimum Nutrition Admin
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Toxic substances and microorganisms that we consume are causing chronic health problems.

We are all so naive and trusting.  We go through life blindly accepting that businesses, the media, our educational institutions, the medical community and government are going to shield us from harmful substances and situations.  The first mistake is thinking that people in these positions know more than you or that they even care what happens to you or your family.  Ignorance and indifference abounds in every segment of our society.  Every minute of every day, our health is being severely compromised and most of us, even so-called health experts, have no idea it is happening.  Unless we experience an health crisis, we mistakenly assume everything is fine.  Unfortunately, we are constantly breathing, drinking or eating toxic substances and infectious agents that could easily be eliminated from our environment.  The immediate effects tend to be subtle if even noticeable at all; however, the long-term impact can be catastrophic.  The fact that these toxins and contagions are not removed from the things we consume is not necessarily due to intentional negligence by oversight organizations, although it is a frequent occurrence, but rather a simple lack of understanding.  We need to take off the rose-colored glasses and realize that the majority of health problems we face are the direct cause of the dangerous, even deadly, substances and microorganisms we consume on a daily basis.  No one is going to protect your health for you, it is your responsibility.

Toxic Water – Silent Crisis

All living organisms on earth require water in order to survive.  In fact, water was the facilitator which allowed organic compounds to merge resulting in the creation of Earth’s first life forms.  It is safe to say that every mentally competent adult understands that the human body will die without water.  Incredibly, this is the only statement regarding water and its relationship to the human body on which we all agree.  Our biological need for clean water, while conceptually simplistic, is an extremely complex subject about which most of us are completely ignorant.  Conflicting viewpoints, hidden agendas and contradictory information from so-called experts within governmental agencies and municipalities, academia, the scientific community and corporate America have left most of us turned off and tuned out of the entire matter.

Unfortunately, this ignorance and apathy has allowed for the propagation of a worldwide crisis that is quickly reaching critical mass.  All water used for drinking, bathing and irrigation is contaminated in varying degrees with a multitude of toxic substances and, in some areas, infectious agents.  And through its consumption, our bodies have become severely contaminated resulting in premature aging and a plethora of health disorders and diseases.  We must educate ourselves as to the state of the water supply, what constitutes clean water and how we can ensure the water we consume is pure.  This knowledge will allow us to protect our health and the health of our families.  This subsequent articles were written for this very purpose and will endeavor to demonstrate that the information detailed within is completely accurate.

Water Is The Essence Of Life

One of the two most important components for obtaining and maintaining optimum health is proper hydration (the other being proper nutritional intake).  Water is the building material for every one of our trillions of cells and facilitates every chemical reaction and bioelectrical signal within.  It acts as both a solvent and a delivery mechanism, dissolving essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and glucose from food and delivering them to every cell in the body.  Our bodies use water to flush out toxins the organs’ cells reject and eliminate them through urine and feces.  Water has a large heat capacity which provides for efficient body temperature regulation.  When sufficiently hydrated, the body is able to release heat when the ambient temperature is higher than the body’s temperature.  Evaporation of water emitted from the skin’s surface (sweat) cools the body and aids metabolism.  Water is a phenomenal lubricant for our joints and also acts as a buffer, or cushion, for the eyes, brain and spinal cord.  Approximately 96% of the mass of the human body is made up of just four elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen with the majority in the form of water.  A person possessing ideal health has a body consisting of over 70% water.  Sadly, the amount within the average human body is between 50% and 60%.  It is also worth noting that the more muscular the body, the more water it contains.  Conversely, the more fat, the less water the body contains as fat cells possess relatively little water.

The body obtains water several different ways.  While it may seem obvious, the various ways water enters our bodies is rarely considered.  Of course, the most apparent is by simply drinking water.  This should be the primary way we receive the majority of our water; however, most people do not drink nearly enough to maintain optimal health.  In fact, what we have been told by so-called experts, that everyone should drink 64 fluid ounces (eight – 8 ounces glasses) of water each day, is incorrect.  Simply from a common sense perspective, this assertion is ludicrous.  How could someone weighing 250 pounds require the same amount of water that a 125 pound person would need? In reality, the 250 pound person needs at least twice as much.  Other factors must also be considered.  A physically active person will require more water than a sedentary person.  To illustrate, a roofer working in Phoenix, AZ.  will need considerably more water than a receptionist working in an air conditioned building.  The purity of water also plays a role.  The more sediments and contaminants contained in water, the greater the burden on the digestive and immune systems thus the higher the body’s demand for pure water.  There are many such variables that will influence one’s daily requirement.  Everyone’s body type, diet, level of health and lifestyle are different therefore each person needs a certain volume of clean water that is appropriate for them.

To determine your approximate minimum daily water consumption amount, divide your body weight in half.  This resulting figure represents the minimum number of fluid ounces the body requires on a daily basis.  For example, a person weighing 180 pounds needs at least 90 ounces of water every day.  Of course, as previously detailed, this figure may need to be adjusted upwards depending upon one’s diet, level of activity and level of health and the ambient temperature.  So how do we account for all the variables in the equation that determines our exact beneficial total? Like so many other issues, particularly those that are health related, there is only one definitive, verifiable method that allows us to obtain accurate, truthful answers to these subjective questions – applied kinesiology.

Another beneficial source of water should be natural foods which possess an extremely high percentage of water (up to 95% of total mass) – specifically raw fruits and raw vegetables.  Unfortunately, most of us cook our food which removes much of the water content.  Additionally, the average American diet includes copious amounts of processed food which contains little or no water.  In fact, consuming processed food places a tremendous burden on the digestive system which increases the body’s need for water, making some foods a source of dehydration.  Consequently, ideal amounts of water derived from our diet are drastically diminished.

Since the majority of us do not drink enough water or eat enough water dense foods, our bodies are forced to obtain hydration from a less obvious source: absorption through the skin while bathing, showering or swimming.  Skin is the largest organ of the body and the more dehydrated a person is, the more water the skin will absorb when immersed in it.  It is important to realize that the skin will also absorb everything dissolved in the water.  This is true of anything applied to the skin such as creams, lotions, deodorants, soap, hair spray, cosmetics, sanitizers, etc.  Therefore, any and all toxins contained in any liquid or spray will be absorbed when applied to the skin to an even greater extent than if they were ingested.  When toxins are consumed, at least some of them will be expelled from the body through the digestive and urinary systems.  Toxins absorbed through the skin will not be subject to these filtration processes.  Keep this fact in mind when considering water purification methods and equipment.  An easy rule of thumb to avoid the absorption of contaminants through the skin: do not allow anything on the skin that cannot be eaten.  To illustrate, if you are not willing to drink the heavily chlorinated water of the pool or hot tub you are about to use, then do not get into it.  If you are not willing to eat the highly toxic moisturizing cream or sunblock, then do not apply it to your skin.  Likewise, if you are not willing to drink your tap water, do not shower or bathe in it either.

The Effects Of Contaminants On The Body

Clearly, water is the basis for all life which is why we cannot live beyond 4 or 5 days without it.  We can actually survive longer without food than water.  Unfortunately, water is one of the single greatest sources of the contaminants found in the body such as harmful microorganisms, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals, heavy metals and disinfectants.  To list of all the possible adverse effects of these toxins and infectious agents on the body is impossible.  However, all health problems, even conditions and symptoms that are attributed to the normal aging process or genetic predispositions, are either directly caused or exacerbated by contaminants.

When a harmful stimulus enters the body, the immune system’s primary function is to excrete or expel it.  This is typically accomplished by the digestive and urinary systems in the form of fecal matter and urine but expulsion also occurs through perspiration, saliva, menstruation and earwax and mucus secretion.  For example, when a person has what is considered a “common cold” and they are coughing and sneezing, the body is most likely attempting to eliminate a contaminant.  That foreign substance may be a virus, bacteria, protozoa, parasitic worm or other form of microorganism or it may be a chemical to which the person was unknowingly exposed.  Another biological immune response is inflammation.  Inflammation is the body’s attempt at self-protection; the objective again is to remove the harmful stimuli (e.g.  toxins, irritants or pathogens) and to begin the healing process.  Inflammation is followed by suppuration (the discharge of pus) and then granulation stage (the formation of tiny, rounded masses of tissue).

If the immune system is unable to destroy or expunge the contaminate and heal the affected area, the body will continue to its efforts to prevent cell penetration.  In the case of toxins, it will attempt to isolate them in a type of storage unit as a cyst, tumor, in fat cells or some other abnormal tissue mass.  In this manner, the body does not allow the toxin inside the cell where it could inflict irreparable damage.  When exposed to pathogens, the body will generate an antibody and/or a cell-mediated response, both of which are intended to expel or destroy the pathogen.  Antibodies will typically attack extracellular microorganisms (in tissue spaces) while a cell-mediated response targets intracellular pathogens (inside host cells).  When contaminants are able to penetrate the cell, damage to its chemical reactions and/or DNA can result in cell mutation, cell malignancy and even cell death.  If the body is unable to destroy the offending substance, the function and viability of an entire organ, gland or other tissue may be permanently compromised.

Contaminants also disrupt the natural functions of homeostasis.  This is a multitude of highly complex interactions which allows the body’s systems to operate within a normal range.  These interactions promote compensatory changes supportive of optimal physical and psychological responses.  The body’s inability to maintain homeostasis (homeostatic imbalance) may result in disease or death.  Just some of the conditions caused by homeostatic imbalance include many liver and kidney disorders, heart failure, diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, dehydration, gout and any disease expressed by the presence of a toxin or infection in the bloodstream.

Toxins that are fat soluble or possess specific ionic structures easily infiltrate our brains and nerves while others, especially large complex molecules, have difficulty penetrating the blood-brain barrier.  Some neurotoxins, once they have entered the nervous system in large quantities, spread widely and produce generalized effects.  Other neurotoxic chemicals effect only specific groups of cells or fibers and produce localized damage.  In other words, the disorders caused by toxins within the nervous system vary widely in terms of form, scale and scope.

Many toxins disrupt the chemical balance and functioning of nerve cells without actually destroying their form.  Some of these types of impurities can cause problems in the central nervous system.  An effected person may become confused and delusional, turn drowsy or even comatose, display cognitive impairment or have seizures.  Other toxins in this group attack the peripheral nervous system and cause paralysis or abnormal sensations.  Another type of neurotoxin deforms the structure of nerve cells.  This damage can occur in both the central nervous system and the peripheral nerves.  There are a few contaminants that can even produce multiple and severe illnesses following the very first exposure.  For example, a single exposure to some organophosphates (the basis for many insecticides and herbicides) may result in a sudden, sometimes fatal, paralysis followed by peripheral neuropathy shortly thereafter.

Unsafe Water Effects The Health Of Entire Communities

Throughout history, extremely contaminated water has been identified as the origin of phenomenally high disease and mortality rates for entire communities.  In many cases, people had to leave their homes and belongings in order to save the lives of their families.  Thousands of these occurrences from around the world could be cited; however, one of the largest areas to be devastated by persistently high mortality rates and incidents of severe health disorders currently exists right here in the United States.  A research study conducted by Dr. Michael Hendryx and Dr. Melissa Ahern in 2009 (“Mortality in Appalachian Coal Mining Regions: The Value of Statistical Life Lost”) found “increased rates of mortality and morbidity in Appalachia due to diabetes, heart disease and cancer.  Compared to other regions of the country, coal-mining areas have had the highest mortality rates every year from 1979-2005.  The highest mortality rates are in areas with the highest levels of mining.”  In 2008, Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index ranked the health of the residents of Kentucky and West Virginia, the two states with most strip mining operations, second to last and dead last respectively in the United States.

Coal slurry, which is a byproduct of treating coal with a mixture of water and chemicals, is extremely toxic and leaches into the immediate groundwater, contaminating nearby private wells and public water supplies.  As many as 60 different caustic chemicals are used to wash coal which permeates the soil along with the heavy metals that were present in the coal.  In Prenter Hollow, WV, over 300 residents have filed civil complaints against nine coal companies for the contamination of their drinking water due to the dumping of coal slurry in underground mine shafts.  The residents claim that the contaminated water is directly responsible for serious health conditions, many of which have resulted in unnecessary fatalities.

The New York Times published an article highlighting Clean Water Act violations occurring in the area of Prenter Hollow.  It reported that “medical professionals in the area say residents show unusually high rates of health problems.  A survey of more than 100 residents conducted by a nurse hired by Mrs.  Hall-Massey’s lawyer indicated that as many as 30 percent of people in this area have had their gallbladders removed and as many as half the residents have significant tooth enamel damage, chronic stomach problems and other illnesses.  That research was confirmed through interviews with residents.”  (“Clean Water Laws Are Neglected, at a Cost in Suffering,” Charles Duhigg, New York Times, September 12, 2009)

Even communities located far downstream from strip mining sites frequently experience contamination of their drinking water supplies.  The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports that iron and manganese levels surpass drinking water standards in approximately 70% of the wells located in regions where mining occurs.  In a 2003 Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, the EPA reported that “stream chemistry monitoring efforts show significant increases in conductivity, hardness, sulfate and selenium concentrations downstream of [mining] operations. ” These contaminated waters are the source of drinking water for millions of people in major cities located further downstream.

All Ground Water Is Contaminated

While the situation in Kentucky and West Virginia may be extreme in its scale and severity, it illustrates the lack of responsibility being assumed by businesses and government for the protection of our water supply.  All ground water and tap water in the world is now contaminated in varying degrees.  Polluted water exists in areas with relatively little residential, commercial or industrial development, even in locations considered pristine such as national parks and reservations.  Rivers and streams originating in toxic areas transfer contaminants to “clean” areas.  Rain water extracts pollutants from the air and deposits them into the soil and all bodies of water.  Agricultural runoff from the huge tracts of commercial farming land shifts toxic pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers for miles in all directions.  The same is true for urban runoff which adds oil, grease, road salts, metals, bacteria, viruses and toxic chemicals to its surrounding communities.  Industrial effluents containing both organic and inorganic substances pollute water supplies through the discharge of their waste into streams and rivers and by run-off and seepage of waste storage units.  Leachate from dumps and landfills poisons ground water with heavy metals, minerals, organic chemicals, bacteria, viruses, explosives, flammables and countless other toxic substances.

No water source escapes the onslaught of contaminants released into the environment.  Every toxin known to man eventually ends up in someone’s drinking water somewhere.  Studies have shown that even pharmaceuticals, both prescription and over the counter drugs, are finding their way into our tap water.  The drugs most frequently identified are antibiotics, anti-depressants, birth control pills, seizure medication, cancer treatments, pain killers, narcotics, tranquilizers and cholesterol-lowering compounds (“Pharmaceuticals In Our Water Supplies,” Water Resources Research Center, University of Arizona College of Agriculture, July 2000).  Tap water is further contaminated by the pipe materials used to transport it to household faucets which include copper, galvanized steel, lead, polyvinyl chloride, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, polybutylene and polyethylene.  All these materials are constantly outgassing and leaching into our drinking water.

Now, as horrifying as all this may seem, the most frightening aspect is governments’ definition of clean water.  Federal and state regulations allow for what is deemed acceptable or “tolerable” levels of all kinds of contaminants and these standards vary drastically from area to area.  The body may be able to withstand a certain amount of toxins; however, no one is able to determine how much, for how long or what the long term consequences will be.  The effects of contaminants are cumulative and everyone’s reaction to them varies based on numerous factors including genetic predispositions, current level of health and diet, to name just a few.  Federal, state and local governments’ concept of “clean” water is based on an overall misunderstanding of health.  Even more ignorant are the primary methods used by municipalities to treat our drinking water, which in most cases is to add even more chemicals.  Because there is no agreement on what constitutes clean, safe water for human consumption or how to effectively decontaminate water, water treatment regulations vary in each state, county, city or town.  Consequently, over 60,000 chemicals are used to treat the public water supplies around the country.  Incredibly, only 91 of these substances are regulated by the federal government (“Toxic Waters,” New York Times, October 6, 2010).

Every public water treatment facility uses chlorine as a disinfectant to kill disease causing microorganisms in dirty source water.  Chlorine is not used, however, because it is the safest, or even the most effective, method of disinfecting our water.  It is used primarily because it is the cheapest method.  Chlorine is quickly becoming a serious health problem, not only in the United States, but worldwide.  The conditions and ailments that have been associated with long-term chlorine exposure include brittle hair and hair loss, premature aging of the skin, skin rashes and irritation, acne, respiratory disorders, cell damage, cell mutation and cell malignancies, scarring of the arteries and other cardiovascular disorders.  Chlorine also reacts with rotting organic matter like raw sewage, feces from livestock, dead animals and fallen leaves to form toxic chemicals that are clearly harmful to people.  These unintended side effects of chlorinating water, to meet federal drinking water regulations, create a family of chemicals known as trihalomethanes.  The Environmental Protection Agency lumps them under the euphemism “disinfection byproducts. ” Trihalomethanes are a form of free radicals which are serious impairments to the healthy growth and development of the various tissue cells in our bodies.  They are confirmed class b carcinogens and include such substances as chloroform which is a poison that can cause respiratory or cardiac arrest and death.

In reality, the testing and purification of public water is ultimately a function of resources.  Financially strapped communities may experience severe contamination for many months before periodic monitoring identifies a problem.  In some cases, it is not until a statistically improbable number of residents experience serious health issues before thorough testing procedures are initiated.  Recent reports by analysts for the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), national institutes of Health and the nonprofit Environmental Working Group (EWG) show that unhealthy amounts of chemicals, metals and microorganisms regularly appear in tap water, particularly in homes serviced by small public utilities that lack the resources to test and purify their water or from privately owned wells which the EPA does not regulate or test whatsoever.

Bottled Water Is Expensive, Inconvenient & Toxic

Although it is generally accepted that tap water is unclean, most people do not realize that the vast majority of bottled water is also toxic.  The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) conducted a four year study of bottled water which showed that one-third of the bottled water tested contained levels of contamination that exceeded allowable limits under either state or bottled water industry standards.  As absurd as the governments’ concept of clean water is, the bottled water industries’ standards can be even more dangerous.  While there are a few bottled waters that test as relatively clean and energetically strong such as Fuji, Penta and Deer Park, they are still contaminated.  Coupled with their high cost, this excludes bottled water as a viable source of beneficial hydration.  However, if cost is not a concern, purifying natural source water found in some bottled water (and privately owned wells), with one of the systems discussed later in this article, is superior to purifying municipal water.

Here are few reasons to reconsider choosing bottled water as a primary source of drinking water:

  • Many bottled waters contain as many impurities as municipal water which for some companies, such as Coke and Pepsi (Dasani and Aquafina), is the very source of their water.
  • Dangerous toxins from the inexpensive plastic containers leach into its contents.
  • Purifying, bottling and shipping water requires vast resources which negatively impacts the environment and makes its per ounce cost the highest of all water sources.
  • Purchasing, transporting and storing bottled water is cumbersome and inconvenient which makes its use inconsistent.

If the impurities in the water were not bad enough, dangerous chemicals leaching from the plastic bottle can be added to the toxic mixture.  Bisphenol A or BPA is an estrogen-mimicking chemical which interferes with hormone levels and cell signaling systems.  It has been linked to a myriad of serious health problems including learning and behavioral disabilities, damaged immune system function, onset of early puberty, infertility, growth of uterine fibroids, decreased sperm count, prostate and breast cancer, diabetes and obesity.  There are literally thousands of other potentially harmful chemicals leeching from plastic bottles including an endocrine-disrupting chemical known as DEHF.  Using an advanced combination of bioassay work and high-resolution mass spectrometry, researchers have identified over 24,000 different chemicals present in tested water.

There are 50 billion water bottles consumed every year, nearly 30 billion of them in the United States alone.  Bottled water produces up to 1.5 million tons of plastic waste per year.  According to Food and Water Watch, plastic requires up to 47 million gallons of oil annually to produce.  Less than 20% of the total number of bottled waters purchased are recycled.  Water bottles are made of completely recyclable plastics, but they do not biodegrade.  Plastic bottles photodegrade which means they fragment over time.  These bits of plastic pollute waterways and contaminate soil.  According to the Ocean Conservatory, plastic bottles and bags are the most pervasive form of pollution found on beaches and in the oceans.  It is estimated that every square mile of the ocean has over 46,000 pieces of plastic floating in it.  Ten percent of the plastic manufactured worldwide ends up in the ocean, the majority settling on the ocean floor or drifting in vast eddies of current-bound trash.

Why Is There No Consensus?

What is clean water? Does my tap water contain harmful contaminants? What effects do contaminants have on my health? Is this bottled water pure? It would seem a simple matter to know the answers to these questions.  Yet, there is no definitive consensus regarding these questions or any other health related issues for that matter.  Why? Because the inherent structure and function of the human brain is incapable of differentiating truth from falsehood or essence from perception.  Our minds rely on extremely limited cause and effect assessments.  We all are simply guessing at what is beneficial for our bodies based on a subjective thought process that involves millions of contributory elements.  Some of the most obvious factors that influence our opinions, beliefs, faith and other mental processes are age, gender, education, family dynamics, brain physiology, prior experience, training, language skills, IQ and psychological and intellectual expertise and capacity.  These factors are dominated by the overall level of consciousness with which one is born, which is affected by our intentions, commitment, internalized goals and attention set.  All these factors are further influenced by politicized cultural and societal presumptions that are accepted as ‘reality’ and intrinsic to social structure.

We all assess our world through the body’s sensory systems.  By seeing, hearing, touching, smelling and tasting, we accumulate sensory inputs or data which the brain processes to formulate thoughts, opinions, beliefs, desires and perceptions which are combined with previous experiences (i.e.  upbringing, education, social interactions, media exposure, etc. ) to create our particular individual paradigms of life.  All information received from parents, peers, educators, mass media, industry experts, clergy, government officials, scientists and researchers is filtered by the mind based on two criteria: 1) how the information correlates to one’s current set of beliefs and overall level of consciousness and 2) the perceived level of integrity of its source.  The information is either accepted as truth, which will then alter or reinforce one’s prevailing belief systems, or it is rejected as fallacy.

Regardless of the mind’s final interpretation of the input, the process of assessing correctness, truthfulness and accuracy is completely arbitrary and has no basis in reality.  Additionally, this same subjective process has also been employed by the very people (so-called experts) whose information we have used to establish our own paradigms.  They have also chosen to believe certain inputs and disbelieve others as predicated on their previous assumptions, past experiences and current level of consciousness.  The communication of these guesses (which are presented as fact) will become, at least in part, the basis of our beliefs which we will also accept and portray as fact.  Again, we all are simply guessing as to what is right or wrong, true or false, good or bad, beneficial or detrimental – no matter how well informed or intelligent we consider ourselves to be.

This is why some people believe certain amounts of toxic substances have no measurable effects on the body, while others view the impact to be immediately injurious and increasingly so as toxins accumulate.  No two people have the same set of beliefs which is why there is no subject about which all people can agree.  The facts of today will be condemned as ignorant conjecture tomorrow.  The earth is no longer viewed as flat because the essence of our beliefs, against which all new sensory inputs are evaluated, is constantly evolving.  There are few, if any, beliefs that were commonly accepted as being unquestionably true a thousand years ago that have remained as such in today’s society.  Most everything we will have assumed to be true during our lifetimes will have been modified to some degree before our deaths and will be completely dismissed as naiveté a thousand years from now.  This is why some people believe low levels of one or many contaminants is harmless to the body while others feel they are the primary cause of aging and death.  Some people have actually discovered the truth about the issues of contaminated water because they have been able to bypass the limited function of the brain through the use of applied kinesiology.

Applied Kinesiology – The Ultimate Truth Detector

Fortunately for some of us, the guessing game is finally over.  No longer do we humans have to struggle to identify that which is true or life supporting.  We can immediately know, for example, whether the water we are drinking will have adverse consequences.  We can receive accurate, truthful answers to questions about the condition of our water, the existence of specific contaminants, their effect on our health, the best methods for cleaning our water or any other questions of concern.  This method allows us to determine correct information that is independent of personal beliefs, experience or education with heretofore unparalleled speed, ease and accuracy.  This innate ability to immediately distinguish between positive (truth) and negative (falsehood) energy has always existed within our bodies; however, the actual mechanics necessary to utilize this amazing gift was only realized at the end of the 20th century.

Everything in the universe, past and present, possesses a unique energy field that radiates a frequency and a vibration which results as an indelible imprint on the impersonal field of consciousness.  Every object, person, thought, feeling, action and event is permanently recorded in this “universal database” and may be accessed instantaneously via kinesiology (muscle testing).  Applied kinesiology is a technique by which the body’s involuntary response is measured when exposed to positive and negative stimuli.  Anything possessing negative energy, such as a false statement or toxic substance, will result in a weak muscular response while a positive energy field will elicit a strong muscular response.  When performed properly by an individual free of certain limiting factors, the muscle testing results received are unaffected by personal beliefs, opinions, education or experience, can never be incorrect and are reproducible by anyone else capable of accurate testing.

With the discovery of muscle testing in the 1960′s, for the first time in history, a person is able to differentiate truth from falsehood of all that is seen or heard.  We no longer have to simply trust or believe that the written or verbal information we receive is true and accurate.  All sources of information are subject to testing which includes peers, teachers, government officials, scholars, spiritual leaders, the media, historical texts, scriptures and all forms of educational material.  The most minute detail of anything that has occurred or existed in time and space can be determined with absolute accuracy.  The impact of this incredible diagnostic tool on humankind’s advancement physically, intellectually and spiritually will be unlimited.  If there is any doubt as to the “scientific” validity and credibility of muscle testing, please read Dr. David Hawkins’ Ph.D. dissertation publish as “Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis and Calibration of the Levels of Consciousness.”

That truth or life-sustaining substances cause the body’s muscular system to strengthen and falsehood or life-inhibiting substances result in its weakening was an empirical clinical discovery.  This clinical ascertainment was later substantiated by quantum physics and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.  The phenomenon of muscle testing is due to the fact that truth exists as an actual reality, whereas falsehood merely has no substrate of reality.  Thus, the muscle testing response to the existence of a positive energy field or truth is either “yes” or “not yes” (“no”).  The mechanisms are clarified by understanding basic principles of quantum physics by which the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle itself is the “litmus paper.”  Phenomena are the consequence of the collapse of the wave state of potentiality to the particle state of actuality.  These are the result of intention and observation themselves.  The observer and the observed become an operational unit.  Truth has actual existence and therefore collapses the wave function causing the muscle being tested to become strong.  Falsehood has no reality and therefore is nonexistent and thus fails to get a response and the muscle weakens.  Using electricity as an example, the wire either carries current (electricity exists in the wire) and is therefore “on” (muscle testing equivalent to a strong response) or current does not exist in the wire and it is “not on” (muscle testing equivalent to a weak response).

To demonstrate the practical application of muscle testing, let us consider the dilemma discussed earlier of our inability to ascertain the exact amount of water each of us needs to remain healthy.  Muscle testing allows for a quick, accurate determination through a series of simple test statements.  To begin, we will calculate the minimum daily water requirement for a fictitious person using the equation detailed in an earlier section (see Water is the essence of life).  This figure will provide the starting point for the test statements.  We will use an arbitrary example of a 200 pound person whose minimum daily amount is calculated to be 100 fluid ounces.  The first statement for this fictitious person is: “My body requires more than 100 ounces of  the water I have in front of me every day.”  Note, the statement must include the source of the water because, as you now know, not all water is the same.  If the muscular response is weak, then this person’s body does not need more than 100 ounces.  However, a strong response validates the statement as true; therefore, 100 ounces is not sufficient.  Regardless of the initial test statement result, an exact figure can be identified whether it is higher or lower than 100 ounces.  Proceeding on the premise that the first response was positive (yes) and our fictitious person’s body needs more than 100 ounces, the subsequent test statements will be as follows:

  • “My body requires more than 100 ounces of the water I have in front of me every day.”  (For demonstration purposes, we will say the response is strong or “yes”)
  • “More than 110 ounces.”  (Strong response)
  • “More than 120 ounces.”  (Strong response)
  • “More than 130 ounces.”  (Weak response or “no”)

From the above test results, we now know that this person needs between 120 and 130 ounces of water per day.  The exact figure can be obtained by continuing the same line of testing (I need more than 121 ounces, I need more than 122 ounces and so on).  It is important to realize this amount will fluctuate daily but, over time, one will gain a sense of what the typical, beneficial amount should be.

The assertion posed earlier that all ground water and municipal water supplies are contaminated can also be quickly and accurately confirmed by muscle testing.  For example, let us consider a person whose water comes from a public water supply and has no other purification system installed in their home.  This person fills a glass with water from their faucet and then muscle tests the question:  "The water in the glass before me is free of all contaminants."  The response to this question will be a weak or "no" response.  An even more global question can be tested by anyone at this every moment using the following statement: "There exists a municipal water supply in the United States that is free of all possible contaminants."  Again, the test result will be "no."  For an in-depth tutorial on muscle testing, read The Single Greatest Discovery In History.

To demonstrate the practical application of muscle testing, let us consider the dilemma discussed earlier of our inability to ascertain the exact amount of water each of us needs to remain healthy.  Muscle testing allows for a quick, accurate determination through a series of simple test statements.  To begin, we will calculate the minimum daily water requirement for a fictitious person using the equation detailed in an earlier section (see Water is the essence of life).  This figure will provide the starting point for the test statements.  We will use an arbitrary example of a 200 pound person whose minimum daily amount is calculated to be 100 fluid ounces.  The first statement for this fictitious person is: “My body requires more than 100 ounces of  the water I have in front of me every day.”  Note, the statement must include the source of the water because, as you now know, not all water is the same.  If the muscular response is weak, then this person’s body does not need more than 100 ounces.  However, a strong response validates the statement as true; therefore, 100 ounces is not sufficient.  Regardless of the initial test statement result, an exact figure can be identified whether it is higher or lower than 100 ounces.  Proceeding on the premise that the first response was positive (yes) and our fictitious person’s body needs more than 100 ounces, the subsequent test statements will be as follows:

  • “My body requires more than 100 ounces of the water I have in front of me every day.”  (For demonstration purposes, we will say the response is strong or “yes”)
  • “More than 110 ounces.”  (Strong response)
  • “More than 120 ounces.”  (Strong response)
  • “More than 130 ounces.”  (Weak response or “no”)

From the above test results, we now know that this person needs between 120 and 130 ounces of water per day.  The exact figure can be obtained by continuing the same line of testing (I need more than 121 ounces, I need more than 122 ounces and so on).  It is important to realize this amount will fluctuate daily but, over time, one will gain a sense of what the typical, beneficial amount should be.

The assertion posed earlier that all ground water and municipal water supplies are contaminated can also be quickly and accurately confirmed by muscle testing.  For example, let us consider a person whose water comes from a public water supply and has no other purification system installed in their home.  This person fills a glass with water from their faucet and then muscle tests the question:  "The water in the glass before me is free of all contaminants."  The response to this question will be a weak or "no" response.  An even more global question can be tested by anyone at this every moment using the following statement: "There exists a municipal water supply in the United States that is free of all possible contaminants."  Again, the test result will be "no."  For an in-depth tutorial on muscle testing, read The Single Greatest Discovery In History.

How To Determine What Is Beneficial

We are constantly being inundated with study after study of what is “good” for us and what is not.  Even more frustrating is that much of the information is contradictory.  One day a scientist releases a study that correlates alcohol consumption with an increase risk of a specific type of cancer.  The following day, a major university reports findings that red wine is good for the heart.  What is healthy one day is not the next.  We are in a perpetual state of confusion regarding so many subjects where we must rely on the perceived expertise of others.  The problem is that there is rarely a consensus about anything.  The information and opinions regarding our drinking water and its consumption, contamination and purification is no exception.  Conflicting research and the antithetical conclusions arise from several factors:

  • The brain’s inability to discern truth from falsehood.
  • Paradigm blindness (perceiving a nonexistent cause and effect relationship based on a particular set of beliefs and experiences).
  • Intentional distortion of data to promote a hidden agenda.

All matter possesses a dynamic energy field that can be measured and manipulated.  This energy field is either positive or negative, in varying degrees of strength.  Within complex organisms such as plants, animals and people, many different levels of energy exist concurrently and, in many cases, there will be both positive and negative energies in a single organism.  For example, an Eastern Diamondback rattlesnake has an overall high positive energy field although its venom is a powerfully negative energy field.  The same is true of water.  While it is of singular importance to every aspect of the body and in a pristine state will possess an incredible strong field, the existence of the negative energy fields of contaminants will decrease the water’s overall strength.

All energy innate to any substance, positive and/or negative, can now be precisely calibrated using the Scale of Energetics.

The Scale Of Energetics

500 – Life enhancing energy
200 – 499Life sustaining energy
1 – 199Life inhibiting energy

On this logarithmic scale (10x), 1 to 199 depicts life inhibiting energy where the negative impact diminishes as calibrations trend upward toward the level of 200.  200 is the critical level at which energy transforms to life sustaining energy.  Anything that is to be consumed or applied to the body must test at 200 or above for the substance not to have a deleterious effect on the body.  Substances that calibrate in the “life sustaining” category (calibrations ranging from 200 to 499) may not negatively impact the body but they are of little to no benefit.  Once the energy field reaches 500, it acquires the ability to withstand external forms of stress, both physical and emotional, and becomes life enhancing.  This stress resistant quality increases to infinity, which represents the perfect expression of life giving creation that is impervious to all external forces.  One should always seek to consume substances that calibrate above 500 and shield the body from anything calibrating below 200, including people.

Once the technique of muscle testing has been mastered, the world can be assessed in a much more specific, accurate, realistic way.  In order to calibrate an object or person using the Scale of Energetics and muscle testing, simply make the following statement:

  • “On the Scale of Energetic, this (name of the object) calibrates above 200.”

If the O-ring remains strong (a “yes” response), then the object being tested possesses a positive energy field.  To determine just how strong the field is, continue with the same statement but use incrementally higher numbers until a “no” or weak response is received.  For example:

  • “This (name of the object) calibrates above 300.”
  • “This (name of the object) calibrates above 450.”
  • “This (name of the object) calibrates above 460.”

Any number on the scale may be chosen as a starting point and then move up or down on the scale depending on the responses received (yes or no) until a specific number is reached.  Additional examples:

  • “On the Scale of Energetics, this water calibrate above 500.”
  • “On the Scale of Energetics, my liver calibrates below 300.”
  • “On the Scale of Energetics, this apple calibrates above 400.”

To illustrate, one could determine their tap water’s exact energy level with this test statement: “On the Scale of Energetics, this glass of water before me calibrates above 200, above 300, above 400″ and so on.  Any number on the scale can be chosen as a starting point and then move up or down depending on resulting responses.  By applying this calibration method, the impact of a purification system on the water may also be assessed with pinpoint accuracy.  Simply take a reading before filtration to establish a baseline and then another calibration subsequent to the purification.

What Is In My Water?

Determining which treatment system(s) is appropriate for your household depends on a number of factors.  Foremost is to determine the desired level of cleansing and the associated costs.  Costs include the initial investment in equipment, long-term maintenance and parts replacement, possible water waste and energy usage.  Besides budgetary considerations and what one believes to be an acceptable level of contamination, it is equally important to identify the contaminants present in the water.  Identifying all harmful substances will allow for the selection an effective system that is geared toward eliminating the specific contaminants in one’s tap water.

Owners of private wells should test their water annually since governmental testing and monitoring regulations do not apply to privately owned wells.  Some local public health departments offer basic water testing services to their residents; however, these services are scarce and limited in scope.  If your water is supplied by a utility, request a copy of their annual water quality report.  It will provide some basic information on the water supply in your area including detected contaminants, the potential sources of those contaminants and the levels at which those contaminants are present in the water.  This report may or may not identify every possible harmful substance.  The Water Quality Association has free online contaminant research and water symptom diagnostic tools that provide a wealth of useful information.

Without some idea of what needs to be removed from your water, you will simply be guessing as to the most suitable system.  Regardless of the water source and the availability of free analysis services or reporting, everyone should still have their water analyzed by either a water treatment professional, an EPA or state approved lab, a home test kit or muscle testing.  Muscle testing for specific contaminants will be the most accurate method if one has kinesiological experience and a comprehensive list of substances that could be present.  Testing can begin with the identification of broad category contaminants by using statements such as these:

  • “There are inorganic compounds in this water.”
  • “There are microorganisms in this water.”
  • “There are organic substances in this water.”

The testing should progress to more specific statements such as:

  • “This water contains arsenic.”
  • “The amount of arsenic present in this water will be harmful to my body.”
  • “There are harmful bacteria in this water.”

The testing should be as detailed and specific as possible.  The comprehensiveness of the analysis will depend on one’s ability to construct specific, pertinent test statements which is a function of one’s intuitiveness and desire for specificity.  The more relevant and specific the questions one knows to ask, the more thorough the analysis.  Be very clear on this point – muscle testing is infallible.  Test results can never be in error.  Any shortcoming in the process resides with the person posing the questions and/or the statements being tested.  Ambiguous, irrelevant, nonspecific statements will yield similar results that will be subject to misinterpretation which can and should be avoided at all times.  To learn what conditions could exist within a person that would prevent consistently accurate testing results, read The Single Greatest Discovery In History.

Most Effective Methods Of Water Purification

There are many types of water purification systems available that vary widely not only in the contaminants they remove but where they are removed (e.g.  sinks, showers, whole house) and at what cost.  It is important to distinguish between the primary objectives of water treatment systems, namely purification and disinfection.  Water purification is the removal or elimination of any contaminant and all treatment systems will provide some form of purification.  Water disinfection is the destruction or removal of microorganisms such viruses, bacteria, protozoa and other infectious agents.  Only certain types of treatment systems eliminate biological organisms which are ozone generators, ultra violet light treatment and distillation.  While these methods kill pathogens, the types and amounts of other contaminants they remove from the water differs greatly.  No single method will provide complete purification and, typically, the higher the quality and effectiveness of the system, the higher the price tag and frequency of maintenance.

The following represent the most popular types of water purification systems with each category possessing significant equipment variations:

  • Sediment filters
  • Activated carbon filters
  • UV light treatment systems
  • Distillation systems
  • Reverse osmosis systems
  • Ozone generators

Each of the above systems is available in point of use or point of entry types.  Point of use (POU) water treatment equipment is designed to treat small amounts of drinking water for use in the home.  These devices can be countertop units, faucet or shower head attachments, or under sink installations.  They differ from point of entry (POE) devices which are installed on the incoming water line to decontaminant all the water flowing into the home.  The most common point of use (POU) location is the kitchen sink.  Only the water that is actually used for drinking, cooking and beverage and food preparation is treated.  Purifying the water at this single location is economical since only a few hundred gallons of water need to be treated per year instead of thousands of gallons that would be treated by a whole-house (POE) system.  POU and POE systems have their advantages and disadvantages and should be evaluated based on the desired level of purification, the initial and ongoing costs and their ability to eliminate the water problems specific to one’s household.

One of the most cited objections to investing in any type of water purification equipment (besides the cost) is that essential minerals are removed from the water – particularly from distilled water.  This is an extremely ignorant reason to reject something that would provide safer, cleaner drinking water for an entire family.  Yes, beneficial minerals can and should be removed by an effective system.  If the equipment did not extract these minerals, it would not be able to filter out any inorganic contaminants such as arsenic, asbestos, barium, lead or mercury to name a few.  Again, a good treatment system has the potential to kill or remove bacteria, viruses, cysts, heavy metals, radionuclides, particulates, organic compounds and inorganic compounds, which include beneficial minerals.  Equally untrue is the myth that water devoid of beneficial minerals due to purification will leach the minerals that exist within the human body when the purified water is consumed.  Muscle testing will verify this misconception is false.

The reality is that the amount of beneficial minerals being derived from one’s water is negligible at best, regardless of the source.  For example, a person living in Boston, Massachusetts and drinking the municipal tap water would have to consume 42 gallons of water every day in order to obtain the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of calcium.  It would require over 115 gallons a day to receive enough magnesium, 53 gallons per day for iron and a whopping 10,560 gallons every day to acquire a sufficient amount of phosphorus.  If anyone believes they are receiving the necessary minerals to live from their water does not understand nutrition whatsoever.  Even if someone is fortunate enough to have an abundant amount of beneficial minerals coming from a deep, underground spring or well, eliminating the risk of contamination and their potentially deadly effects on the body more than justifies the loss of minerals in the process.  Does it make sense to consume harmful toxins and pathogens just to save the minerals present which, in the vast majority of cases, is a miniscule amount? Minerals can and should be obtain from other sources, specifically food and supplementation.  If minerals being present in your drinking water are a priority, purchase a pure above-sea coral calcium powder and add it to your filtered water.  Coral minerals are ionic; therefore, 92% of the 73 beneficial minerals present are immediately absorbable.  This will give your water more minerals than it ever could have had, even in a pristine, natural state.

Sediment Filters

Sediment filters act as a sieve to remove solid particles from a water supply.  It is important to realize that these filters do not remove microorganisms or dissolved compounds such as chemicals or heavy metals.  Pressure forces the water to be filtered through a porous material, trapping the sediments.  These filters come in a variety of sizes from fine to coarse, with the lower micron rating being the finer.  The finer the filter, the more particles the filter will remove and the more frequently it will need to be replaced.  Sediment filters are further classified as nominal or absolute.  For example, a nominal five micron filter can remove 85% of particles from the water that are three microns and larger.  An absolute three micron filter can screen out 99. 9 % of particles three microns and larger.  If sediment filtration is to be the treatment system of choice, it is best to use an absolute-rated filter.

Sediment filters basically consist of two types of material – fiber and ceramic.  Fiber filters use materials such as cellulose, polypropylene, polyester, cotton or rayon that are woven into a tight but porous mess.  Fiber filters are often used as prefilters to remove larger particles that could clog an activated carbon or reverse osmosis filter.  Fiber filters will not remove organic or inorganic compounds (chlorine, lead, mercury, trihalomethanes, etc. ) that are dissolved in the water or any microorganisms.  Ceramic filters’ function is similar to fiber filters except water is forced through a porous ceramic material.  If the pores of the ceramic are small enough, this filter can reduce asbestos fibers and other particulate matter.  Also like fiber filters, ceramic filters will not remove dissolved organic or inorganic compounds, viruses or any other pathogens.  Ceramic filters may be used in conjunction with other purification systems to prevent clogging and achieve a more thorough cleansing of contaminants.

While sediment filters are relatively inexpensive, they do not change the way water tastes or smells and their effectiveness as a comprehensive purification system is marginal.  They are a poor choice as a stand-alone solution to water decontamination unless it is the only option for a limited budget.  However, as an additional component on other treatment systems, sediments filter increase overall system performance, reduce clogging and minimize equipment maintenance.

Activated Carbon Filters

Activated carbon is particles of carbon that have been treated to increase their surface size and absorption ability for the filtration of soluble substances, particularly organic compounds.  Contaminate reduction is accomplished by forcing water through a column containing active carbon, a highly porous material, which absorbs a wide range of contaminants.  The effectiveness of an active carbon (AC) filter depends on the temperature and the nature of the substances.  The filtration process is influenced by the following factors: 1) the carbon’s pore size and surface area, 2) the type of carbon medium, 3) the chemical composition and concentration of contaminants, 4) the water pressure and 5) the extent to which the contaminants are exposure to the carbon medium.  The amount of activated carbon within the filter and the contact time the water has with it will the greatest impact on contaminant removal.  The more contact time and the denser the carbon medium, the better the results.

Contaminant reduction is accomplished two ways: 1) trapping solid particles that are too large to pass through the pores and 2) the adsorption of dissolved contaminants that are attracted to the surface of the carbon medium.  The characteristics of the carbon material (such as particle and pore size, surface area, surface chemistry, density and hardness) all effect the degree to which impurities are eliminated.  Microorganisms are not killed or filtered by activated carbon and, in actuality, they can promote bacteria growth if not properly maintained or periodically replaced.  Over time, AC filters will eventually be less effective at reducing contaminants as the pores become clogged and its adsorptive surfaces become saturated with dissolve substances.  Finally, since it is difficult to know when these filters have become saturated with contaminants and because they are subject to bacterial buildup, flushing and cartridge replacement should be conducted in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications.  Also noteworthy, particularly when using countertop and faucet mounted carbon filtration systems, hot water should never be run through a carbon filter as it will damage it.

There are essentially two types of carbon filters – granular and solid block.  In granular activated carbon filters, water flows through a bed of loose activated carbon granules which trap some particulate matter while removing some chlorine and other inorganic compounds, some organic contaminants and most undesirable tastes and odors.  Loose granules of carbon do not restrict the water flow to the same extent as solid block AC filters.  This enables them to be used in situations like whole house filters where low flow rate and water pressure may be an issue.  Granules AC filters require simple, economical maintenance with a typical filter cartridge needing to be changed every few months to a year, depending on water use, level of contamination and the manufacturer’s specifications.  Granular AC filters do not require electricity or waste water. 

Granular filters are effective and valuable treatment devices however, like all purification systems, their limitations need to be evaluated.  Granular AC filters, like all activated carbon filters, do not naturally reduce the levels of soluble salts, nitrates, fluoride or potentially harmful minerals like arsenic and cadmium.  Also, on their own, they cannot reduce microorganism contamination.  Their primary design shortcomings are channeling, dumping and large pore size.  Water seeks the path of least resistance so water flowing through the filter can potentially “channel” around the carbon granules and avoid filtration.  Channeling is difficult to detect therefore one will assume all water is being filtered when, in actuality, it is not.  Dumping occurs when pockets of contaminated water that have formed in the filter collapse with the change in flow rate or water pressure.  This “dumps” the contaminated water into the already filtered flow.  Granular AC filters large pore size allows many small substances, not subject to absorption, to pass through the filter.

Solid block AC filters contain carbon that has been specially treated, compressed and bonded to form a solid, uniform matrix.  This solid block allows for a much smaller pore size than a granular AC filter.  This allows for the removal of smaller particles and provides longer contact time with the activated carbon for more complete contaminant reduction.  If the pore size is small enough (0.5 micron or smaller), bacteria that become trapped do not have the space to multiply, eliminating the bacterial accumulation problem commonly seen in granular AC filters.  The solid block AC filters’ design provides greater adsorption of many different chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, chlorine, chlorine byproducts, etc. ) and more thorough filtration of parasitic cysts, asbestos and other particulates.  When combined with certain specialized materials, these filters can be modified to remove other contaminants such as lead, mercury and arsenic.  The rigid structure of the solid block AC filter also eliminates the channeling and dumping issues associated with granular filters.  Solid block AC filters do not require electricity to be completely effective and do not waste water like reverse osmosis.  They require simple, economical maintenance with a typical filter cartridge needing to be changed every few months to a year, depending on water use, level of contamination and the manufacturer’s specifications.

There are fewer weaknesses to solid block filtration than granular, but some do exist.  Like granular filters, solid block filters are less effective at removing nitrates, chloride and heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and mercury.  Due to the dense material and smaller pore size, water flow can be restricted; therefore, households with inherently lower water pressure may not be able to use this type of filter.  With usage and contaminant accumulation, the problem of restricted water flow is exacerbated.  Also, like most other systems, as solid block AC filters remove impurities from the water, they gradually lose effectiveness until they are no longer able to adsorb or filter contaminants.  Detecting when a filter is nearing the end of its effective life cycle is exceptionally difficult.  Adhering to the manufacturer’s guidelines for cartridges replacement is always recommended.

UV Light Treatment Systems

Ultraviolet light is one of Nature’s powerful disinfectants.  A UV treatment device possessing sufficient intensity and the correct wavelength can destroy microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and protozoa.  Disinfection occurs when water flows through a clear chamber where it is exposed to an ultraviolet bulb.  If the light is of sufficient intensity for the type of water to be treated, it will destroy the genetic material of the pathogens.  The effectiveness of a UV system is contingent upon the clarity of the incoming water supply.  If the light is block by particulates or dissolved organic/inorganic matter, the infectious agents could be completely or partially shielded from exposure and therefore survive the disinfection process.  Consequently, water may need to be filtered to remove solid particles prior to UV treatment.  The primary strengths of a ultraviolet system are that it destroys, or renders inactive, pathogenic microorganisms in a matter of seconds without introducing any toxic or significant nontoxic byproducts into the water.  A UV system adds no smell or taste to the treated water and in certain situations will remove some existing odors and foul taste.

There are significant weaknesses inherent to UV devices.  As previously stated, UV treatment is not suitable for water with high turbidity (substances that scatter light).  These substances can react with ultraviolet radiation and reduce performance.  Turbidity makes it difficult for radiation to penetrate water and pathogens can be shadowed, protecting them from the light.  UV light has no effective on non-living contaminants such as lead, asbestos, organic chemicals, chlorine, flouride and so on.  Resilient cryptosporidia cysts are fairly resistant to ultraviolet light.  UV light can also alter some organic compounds into equally harmful byproducts.  UV devices are insufficient for comprehensive purification unless combined with a reverse osmosis system or activated carbon filter.

Ozone Generators

Like ultraviolet light, ozone (O3) is another of nature’s natural disinfectants but it also eliminates some other contaminants.  Ozone is a naturally occurring component of fresh air consisting of three oxygen atoms.  The oxygen (O2) we breathe possesses only two chemically linked oxygen atoms.  Lighting storms leave a very distinct fresh smell in the air which is large amounts of ozone created by the electrical discharges of the lighting bolts.  Ozone is also created by the Sun’s ultra violet rays which forms the layer of ozone in the Earth’s upper atmosphere.  Ozone is very reactive and unstable with a short existence before it reverts back to oxygen or attaching to another atom.  In other words, one of the three oxygen atoms has a weak connection on the others and easily transfers its electrons to substances in air or water (oxidation).  Manmade ozone is accomplished either by an electrical field, as in the corona discharge type ozone generators, which simulate lightning, or by ultraviolet light used by UV type ozone generators, which simulate sunlight.  The ozone is then injected or diffused into the water supply.  Note: ultraviolet ozone generators typically produce a lower output than corona discharge devices and tend to be more expensive.

There are many advantages to using an ozone generator that go beyond water treatment.  First and foremost, ozone is an effective and efficient disinfectant that kills microorganisms.  Being it is the most powerful and rapid acting oxidizer man is able to create, ozone will oxidize (eliminate) all bacteria, viruses, mold and yeast spores and some organic material given sufficient exposure.  Ozone also oxidizes and precipitates iron, sulfur and manganese so they can be filtered out of the water.  Ozone adds no taste or odor to the water and in many cases will improve both.  Since ozone is a derivative of oxygen and reverts back to pure oxygen, it quickly dissipates after being released into water so there are no residual disinfectants.  Ozonation can also affect turbidity which is the suspension of microscopic or colloidal particles, both organic and inorganic.  These particles often possess a positive electrical charge as opposed to ozone which has a negative charge.  When the two collide, the particles are oxidized and will precipitate.  Ozone can be used to disinfect fruits and vegetables when submerged in ozone treated water.  When water or olive oil that has just been treated with ozone is consumed, it will kill intestinal worms and some species of protozoa.

A major weakness of ozone treatment is that it is primarily a disinfectant and therefore is not effective as a stand-alone purification system.  In fact, if some water is not prefiltered, harmful byproducts can be created such as formaldehyde and bromate.  Also, ozone is not effective at removing dissolved salt or minerals.  Because ozone is so reactive, the internal parts of inexpensive units that are exposed to the ozone, particularly the rubber diaphragm, can quickly degrade.  However, when quality ozone generators are combined with other treatment systems, such as activated carbon filters or a reverse osmosis device, the level of purification is tremendous.

Reverse Osmosis Systems

Reverse osmosis device requires water pressure to force water molecules through several filters which remove particulates and dissolved substances.  Osmosis is the natural tendency for water molecules to pass through a semipermeable membrane consisting of extremely small pores (0.0001 microns), from the side low in dissolved impurities to the side high in dissolved impurities.  The component unique to a reverse osmosis system is the membrane which removes dissolved solids at the ionic level.  The purified water is collected from the clean side of the membrane while water containing the impurities is expelled from the device.  The typical reverse osmosis (RO) system is a unit consisting of a sediment prefilter, the semipermeable membrane, a collection tank and an activated carbon post filter.

RO systems significantly reduce most all contaminants including inorganic and organic compounds and microorganisms with the purity of the treated water approaching the level produced by distillation systems.  Reverse osmosis is an excellent method for decontaminating water with high levels of dissolved inorganic contaminants that can not be removed effectively or economically by other devices.  A good example of this is people with wells in areas where agribusiness introduces high levels of nitrates.  RO devices are also often used to desalinate seawater or brackish water.  Though slower than activated carbon or sediment filters, RO systems can typically purify more water per day than distillers.  Most RO systems do not use electricity however they do require fairly high water pressure to operate effectively.  There are portable countertop models that use electricity.

The most significant disadvantage to using a RO system is the large amount of contaminated wastewater generated.  This can be as much as 50 to 90 percent of the incoming water.  The amount depends mostly on the water pressure difference across the membrane.  The greater the pressure difference, the smaller the wastage rate.  Typically, two to four gallons of contaminated water are flushed down the drain for each gallon of purified water produced.  If you live in an area with high municipal water rates, this system may not be an economically sound choice.  Another potential downside is the possible existence of a defective to damaged membrane which are extremely difficult to detect.  This situation could allow pathogens and other substances to escape filtration undetected into what one would be assuming is purified water.  Additionally, many factors affect the reverse osmosis membrane’s efficiency which include contaminant concentration, chemical properties of the contaminants, the quality of the membrane and its condition, water pH, water temperature and water pressure.  An electric pump can be used to increase water pressure if needed.  Like all purification systems, RO devices require cleaning and maintenance.  The prefilter, post filter and membrane must be changed according to the manufacturer’s specifications and the storage tank must be cleaned periodically.

Distillation Systems

The distillation process passes water over a heated coil‚ causing the water to vaporize and become gaseous.  The steam rises, leaving most contaminants behind.  It then transfers to a cooling chamber where it condenses back into a liquid.  The resulting distillate drips into a storage container.  Salts, sediment and inorganic compounds like lead‚ cadmium and radon (anything that does not boil or evaporate) remain in the distiller.  The boiling water of distillation also destroys microorganisms which are also left behind in the tank.  Distillation is less effective at removing organic chemicals (volatile organic chemicals or VOCs) since many of them possess a lower boiling point than water and therefore are vaporized into the steam.  Most quality distillation systems include a VOC gas vent and carbon activated post filter giving these systems an impressive 99% contaminant removal rate.  Distillation is one of the few practical ways to remove heavy metals, nitrates, chloride and salts that sediment filters, activated carbon filters and ozone generators have difficulty removing.  Another attribute of a distiller is that the high quality of purification will be very consistent regardless of the water source.  Unlike sediment, carbon and RO filters, there is no decrease in performance or water quality over time as long as the components are kept clean.  Distillers require periodic cleaning of the boiler, condensation unit and storage tank.

There are several primary drawbacks to distillation.  First, it takes a considerable amount of time to purify water which can be nearly five hours to produce a single gallon of clean water.  Needless to say, this results in a significant usage of electricity making distillation one of the more expensive in terms of ongoing costs.  Also, the method of purification cannot be for a point of entry (whole house) application therefore only the household’s drinking will be clean.  Finally, many countertop units are low quality devices sold by multilevel marketing companies.  These units typically do not include AC filters or VOC vapor traps.  Like all purification systems, complete removal of contaminants requires a combination of methods therefore a vapor trap, carbon filter or other device must be used in conjunction with a distiller.

Best Choices For Water Storage & Containers

For those individuals who are making wellness a conscious choice, the debate surrounding the use of plastic for beverage containers also continues.  When used in accordance with manufacturers’ directions, certain types of plastic provide less toxic storage for water.  One such plastic is BPA-free Polyethylene Terephthalate, commonly referred to as PET or PETE.  While PET plastic may release fewer toxins, the controversy of possible leaching still looms large.  Both varying temperatures and continuous contact with their liquid contents may contribute to the leaching of antimony.  This is a toxic metallic element added to plastic to increase their strength and hardness, even those considered to be “BPA-free.”  Some independent research indicates that the chemical Bisphenol A (BPA), which is used in the production of plastics, mimics (human) hormones and could be linked to serious health disorders.  It should be noted that debating the stability and safety of PET plastics in regards to bottled water sold commercially is irrelevant since it is not used by the bottled water industry.

In order to be absolutely safe and not contribute any additional contaminants to the water being store or held for immediate consumption, glass bottles should be used.  They are created from natural raw materials (silica, sand and limestone), which means they can safely hold even the most concentrated of liquids without creating concern.  Glass boasts excellent sustainability and since most glass bottles are recycled, the environmental impact is low.  Additionally, food, supplements, tinctures and other liquids stored in glass generally have an extended shelf life, especially if bottled in amber glass.  Amber glass provides better protection from light damage, filtering out even blue and ultraviolet light.  The primary disadvantages, of glass containers, are breakage and higher transport costs.  Weight is a major discrepancy when comparing bottles made of glass to their lighter plastic counterparts.  Obviously, more weight results in higher shipping rates and glass also requires additional protective packing materials which increases costs.

Our Recommendations For Purifying Water

If someone has an unlimited budget and wants the cleanest, energetically strongest water possible throughout their house, this author would install a custom whole house treatment system that would begin with a high quality absolute solid block activated carbon filter followed by high quality reverse osmosis device.  The system would then include another post solid block AC filter and would be completed with a high quality ozone generator that has a specially coated diagram to resist degradation.  This type of custom installation would eliminate 99.9% of all possible contaminants regardless of the initial condition of the source water and distribute that pure water to every plumbing fixture in the house.  Unfortunately, most of us do not possess an unlimited budget and must carefully consider what purification method will produce the best results for the money spent.

Everyone should conduct a thorough cost-benefit analysis in order to determine the treatment method most appropriate for them.  Realize, though, that any type of purification, no matter how limited, is better than nothing.  Even little pitcher filters or faucet mounted filters remove some contaminants which will at least minimize some of the damage to the body that would have otherwise occurred.  These small filters are mostly designed to improve the aesthetics of drinking water (taste, odor and appearance).  They are very limited in the type and number of harmful contaminants removed, typically chlorine and perhaps lead, copper and/or cysts and provide no disinfection.  Although the initial cost of these filters is low (about $5 – $10 for a filter cartridge capable of treating only about 35 – 40 gallons per month), do not assume that the long-term cost is equally as low.  Treating water with the pitcher and faucet filters will cost about $0.14 – $0.25 per gallon, which is roughly $58 – $90 annually.  This per gallon cost is similar to more the elaborate systems discussed earlier.

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